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SAT语法时态难题讲解

2017/4/6 9:07:09点击数(0)已有0人评论 加入收藏

SAT语法中的时态题大致可以分为两种。一种是较为简单的题目,这些句子的共同特点是句中会有一些明显的时间状语告诉考生该用什么时态。例如下面这道题:

Next Monday a committee chosen by (A) the school board met (B) to review (C) the final list of applications for the position of (D) principal at the new high school. No Error. (E)

解析:Next Monday,很明显标志着将来时态,而B选项里的met是过去式,所以很明显是错误的,应改为will meet。



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另外一种则是较难的题目。这些时态题常常难倒很多考生,原因在于其时态标志非常隐晦。我们来分析下面这道SAT反复考查的典型例题:

Because of repeatedly asking in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan, the employees called in sick as a protest against their employer's stubbornness.

A. Because of repeatedly asking in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan,

B. After repeatedly asking in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan,

C. They had repeatedly asked in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan, then

D. Repeatedly asking in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan, finally

E. While they repeatedly asked in vain for a comprehensive health-care plan,


解析:首先,A选项中,because of中的用法是错误的,因为because of 一般后面跟的是名词和名词性短语,所以A选项中跟动名词的用法是错误的,不符合SAT要求的简洁性原则。C选项中,then在这里是做副词,而逗号是不能连接两个句子的,所以C选项犯了不间断句子的错误。至于D选项,很多考生觉得没有什么错误。但是,现在分词的一般式不管是做时间状语还是原因状语,都表示分词所表示的动作与谓语动作同时发生。而在这句话里是有一个明显的时间先后顺序的:先是“请求医疗改革未果”,然后“那些员工才请病假抗议”。所以D选项中的现在分词的一般式完全没有表现出动作的先后关系,因此不选。如果要选择D的话,只有把它改成“Having repeatedly asked in vain”才能表示动作的先后顺序。E选项中的while表示当……时,很明显没有表现出时间先后关系。B选项中的after在这里做介词,表示“在……之后”,很明显表现出了动作的先后关系,所以选B。

 

练习题:

Because of pleading in vain for improved maintenance services, the tenants refused to pay rent until the landlord agreed to make the much-needed repairs.

A. Because of pleading in vain for improved maintenance services, the tenants refused

B. Having pleaded in vain for improved maintenance services, the tenants refused

C. The tenants pleaded in vain for improved maintenance services, thus, finally, refusing

D. The tenants pleaded in vain for maintenance services to improve, then refusing

E. Pleading for maintenance services to improve was in vain, which eventually caused the tenants to refuse


这句话很明显有一个动作的先后顺序,先是tenants请求无效(pleaded in vain),然后他们才拒绝交租金。B选项中,having doing sth.是现在分词的完成式,表示这个动作发生在谓语动作之前,也就是pleaded发生在refused之前,完全符合原句意思,正确。

 

知识点总结:

很明显,以上两道题考查的点都是“现在分词的一般式”和“现在分词的完成式”的区别:分词动作和谓语动作是同时发生,还是按照先后顺序发生。考生必须通过句意明确这一点,才能正确解题。

 


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